one hundred live and die moma

Its blocky 8-bit graphics looked nothing like the lavish, rousing illustrations on its game jackets, but the black-and-faux-wood Atari 2600 game console was the first gaming box to stir the imaginations of millions. The listening system could eavesdrop on everyday conversations in the piazza, and relay them to the 17th century Italian oligarchs. That makes it easier for rookie pilots to fly one, making drones more accessible than ever. And they provide labor, as they continually perform the valuable service of contributing feedback mechanisms regarding the accuracy, usefulness, and overall quality of Alexa’s replies. You can unsubscribe at any time. 4 That’s the equivalent of 185 Google Chromecasts. Gadget reviewers even praised the phone more than 10 years after its launch for its long battery life and clear reception. Why? The video begins, “Say hello to the all-new Echo” and explains that the Echo will connect to Alexa (the artificial intelligence agent) in order to “play music, call friends and family, control smart home devices, and more.” In the Deserts of the West, still today, there are Tattered Ruins of that Map, inhabited by Animals and Beggars; in all the Land there is no other Relic of the Disciplines of Geography.”. Sony’s Walkman was the first music player to combine portability, simplicity and affordability. How can we begin to see it, to grasp its immensity and complexity as a connected form? Yves Citton, The Ecology of Attention (Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2017). A linear display does not enable us to show that each next step of production and exploitation contains previous phases. We live in the building my grandfather purchased in 1921. 9 Our exploded view diagram combines and visualizes three central, extractive processes that are required to run a large-scale artificial intelligence system: material resources, human labor, and data. Emily Achtenberg, “Bolivia Bets on State-Run Lithium Industry,” NACLA, November 15, 2010, https://nacla.org/news/bolivia-bets-state-run-lithium-industry. “Responsible Minerals Sourcing,” Dell, 2018, http://www.dell.com/learn/us/en/uscorp1/conflict-minerals?s=corp. Beep boop bop beep. A life-support system can be shared, it cannot be owned as private property or exploited for private profit. This becomes a complex structure of supply chains within supply chains, a zooming fractal of tens of thousands of suppliers, millions of kilometers of shipped materials and hundreds of thousands of workers included within the process even before the product is assembled on the line. Not meant to replace everyday computers, the Pi is being used in classrooms worldwide to help students learn programming skills. The next larger triangle encompasses the processing of metals, and the next would represent the process of manufacturing components and so on. It’s been Sony’s obsession with compacting high-end tech into sleek, affordable boxes, then making all that power readily accessible to developers, that’s made the PlayStation family an enduring icon of the living room. Her tears and breast milk combined to create a giant salt lake: Salar de Uyuni. 11. Sure, the world had personal computers before the 5150 was introduced in 1981. That led to the birth of “IBM Compatibles,” the forerunner to almost all non-Apple PCs out there today. Sometimes this labor is entirely unpaid, as in the case of the Google’s reCAPTCHA. 1 visit looming. Online shopping from a great selection at Digital Music Store. Google included. Since 1994 we've broadcast uncompromising and innovative music out of our East London heartland. A very nice review of China's foreign and domestic policy, written by a retired, senior national security advisor to various (USA) Presidents from Nixon on. Weird Al’s “White and Nerdy” video helped, too. According to Ayhan Aytes, Amazon’s initial motivation to build Mechanical Turk emerged after the failure of its artificial intelligence programs in the task of finding duplicate product pages on its retail website. One of the earliest in the line, the ThinkPad 700C, came with a 10.4-inch color touch screen, larger than displays offered by other competing products. The aim is to optimize the movements of the robots and humans that collaborate in these warehouses. The promotional video simply states that the range of things you can ask Alexa to do is always expanding. The Dynatac 8000x weighed nearly two pounds and cost almost $4,000. In this way, we have seen the emergence of multiple cognitive economies from the attention economy, That it took over four years for a leading technology company just to understand its own supply chain, reveals just how hard this process can be to grasp from the inside, let alone for external researchers, journalists and academics. Each Tesla car needs approximately seven kilograms of lithium for its battery pack. Even where I live, one … but this map points to another form of opacity: the very processes of creating, training and operating a device like an Amazon Echo is itself a kind of black box, very hard to examine and track in toto given the multiple layers of contractors, distributors, and downstream logistical partners around the world. 7 26 Environment, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/apr/09/shipping-pollution. 3 2–3 (May 4, 2017): 185, https://doi.org/10.1080/09502386.2017.1303425. Here, the worker becomes a part of a machinic ballet, held upright in a cage which dictates and constrains their movement. Musée d’Orsay, Paris Paris, France. In his book A Geology of Media, Jussi Parikka suggests that we try to think of media not from Marshall McLuhan’s point of view – in which media are extensions of human senses The world's biggest cloud computer company remains almost completely non-transparent about the energy footprint of its massive operations. And so the question remains, what are the full resource implications of building such systems? Eventually, the Victor Talking Machine Company would be bought by RCA, which would go on to become a radio and television giant. The damage is best seen from the air, as pockets of lush forest huddle amid huge swaths of barren orange earth. But it forever set the standard for the way human beings interact with computers. In order for each of those components to arrive on the final assembly line where it will be assembled by workers in Foxconn facilities, different components need to be physically transferred from more than 750 supplier sites across 30 different countries. (It’s also part of the permanent collection at New York City’s MoMA.) 42. That the TiVo made it easier than ever to record a TV show gave rise to “time-shifting,” or the phenomenon of viewers watching content when it fits their schedule. “Because Alexa is in the cloud, she is always getting smarter and adding new features.”. The 50 Most Influential Gadgets of All Time. According to research by Amnesty International, during the excavation of cobalt which is also used for lithium batteries of 16 multinational brands, workers are paid the equivalent of one US dollar per day for working in conditions hazardous to life and health, and were often subjected to violence, extortion and intimidation. The dizzying spectacle of global logistics and production will not be possible without the invention of this simple, standardized metal object. These people would go on to buy MacBooks, iPhones and iPads in droves, helping to make Apple the most valuable technology company in the world. Jean-François Lyotard introduced the phrase “affinity to infinity” to describe how contemporary art, techno-science and capitalism share the same aspiration to push boundaries towards a potentially infinite horizon. In order to refine one ton of rare earth elements, “the Chinese Society of Rare Earths estimates that the process produces 75,000 liters of acidic water and one ton of radioactive residue.” Marcus Wohlsen, “A Rare Peek Inside Amazon’s Massive Wish-Fulfilling Machine,” Wired, June 16, 2014, https://www.wired.com/2014/06/inside-amazon-warehouse/. Although this appears on the map as a linear path of transformation, a different visual metaphor better represents the complexity of current extractivism: the fractal structure known as the Sierpinski triangle. Kate Davies and Liam Young, Tales from the Dark Side of the City: The Breastmilk of the Volcano Bolivia and the Atacama Desert Expedition (London: Unknown Fields, 2016). Rose George, Ninety Percent of Everything: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry That Puts Clothes on Your Back, Gas in Your Car, and Food on Your Plate (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013), 22. A woman walks into the room, carrying a sleeping child in her arms, and she addresses the cylinder. Early pagers allowed users to send codes to one another, like 411 for “what’s going on” or 911 to indicate an emergency (for obvious reasons). (Recently, the idea has been somewhat revived by the emergence of so-called hover boards, which are now also entering a kind of post-fad twilight.) 39, The Victorian environmental disaster of gutta percha, from the early origins of the global information society, shows how the relationships between technology and its materiality, environments, and different forms of exploitation are imbricated. In a paradox that many of us have experienced, in order to prove that you are not artificial agent, you are forced to train Google’s image recognition AI system for free, by selecting multiple boxes that contain street numbers, or cars, or houses. With Amazon Mechanical Turk, it may seem to users that an application is using advanced artificial intelligence to accomplish tasks. They play a role in color displays, loudspeakers, camera lenses, GPS systems, rechargeable batteries, hard drives and many other components. Alexander Klose, The Container Principle: How a Box Changes the Way We Think, trans. Uffizi Gallery Florence, Italy. Even in an increasingly paper-less world, the inkjet’s technology lives on in 3-D printers, which are fundamentally the same devices, only extruding molten plastic instead of dye. Indonesia's national tin corporation, PT Timah, supplies companies such as Samsung directly, as well as solder makers Chernan and Shenmao, which in turn supply Sony, LG and Foxconn. (Its predecessor, the 5810, required users to attach a headset in order to make calls.) 22 Priced at just $1 (with film that was similarly inexpensive) when it was introduced in February 1900, the Brownie took cameras off tripods and put them into everyday use. Its TrackPoint navigation device and powerful microprocessors were also considered to be groundbreaking in the early 1990s. It is known as ‘grey gold.’ Smartphone batteries, for example, usually have less than eight grams of this material. Sure, it took Ted Turner in the 1970s and channels like MTV in the 1980s for what we think of as cable TV’s halcyon days to emerge. It sold poorly in the months after its launch in September 1977, but when games like Space Invaders and Pac-Man arrived a few years later, sales shot into the millions, positioning Atari at the vanguard of the incipient video gaming revolution. They are, in essence, helping to train the neural networks within Amazon’s infrastructural stack. But decades earlier, the first commercial cable box that would inspire so many others was an unassuming wood-paneled console manufactured by Pennsylvanian company Jerrold Electronics, sporting three-way sliders for dozens of different channels. ‘OK.’ The room lights up. Together, this becomes an anatomical map of a single AI system. The iPhone popularized the mobile app, forever changing how we communicate, play games, shop, work, and complete many everyday tasks. Commodore’s 8-bit brown and taupe lo-fi 1982 masterpiece ranks with record-keeper Guinness as the best-selling single computer in history. Apple’s supplier program reveals there are tens of thousands of individual components embedded in their devices, which are in turn supplied by hundreds of different companies. Julia Glum, “The Median Amazon Employee’s Salary Is $28,000. Why use live ammunition to disperse a crowd though?? Finally, thanks to Irini Papadimitriou and all the curatorial staff at the V&A Museum. The ecological price of transformation of elements and income disparities is just one of the possible ways of representing a deep systemic inequality. Many of the assumptions about human life made by machine learning systems are narrow, normative and laden with error. The 3210 did more than just introduce the cellphone to new audiences. After the Pocketronic’s launch, circuitry quickly miniaturized and prices shrank to match. Write to Matt Peckham at matt.peckham@time.com. 47, “...In that Empire, the Art of Cartography attained such Perfection that the map of a single Province occupied the entirety of a City, and the map of the Empire, the entirety of a Province. Alex Hern, “Royal Free Breached UK Data Law in 1.6m Patient Deal with Google’s DeepMind,” The Guardian, July 3, 2017, sec. It’s a wonder we didn’t destroy our eyes gaming on the Game Boy’s tiny 2.6-inch olive green screen, considering how many Nintendo sold (over 200 million when you include the souped-up subsequent Game Boy Advance.) The scope is overwhelming: from indentured labor in mines for extracting the minerals that form the physical basis of information technologies; to the work of strictly controlled and sometimes dangerous hardware manufacturing and assembly processes in Chinese factories; to exploited outsourced cognitive workers in developing countries labelling AI training data sets; to the informal physical workers cleaning up toxic waste dumps. Within five years, comparable devices cost just $20, and the first shots were fired in tech’s pricing wars. The device’s amplifying horn was hidden inside a wooden cabinet, giving it the sleek look of a sophisticated piece of furniture. You’d be hard pressed to name a single PlayStation feature that by itself transformed the games industry. Technology, http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jul/03/google-deepmind-16m-patient-royal-free-deal-data-protection-act. The latex was processed then sold through Singapore’s trade markets into the British market, where it was transformed into, among other things, lengths upon lengths of submarine cable sheaths. But in contrast to user visibility, the precise details about the phases of birth, life and death of networked devices are obscured. Typically, workers spend 9 to 10 months in the sea, often with long working shifts and without access to external communications. The “palm top” computer (get it?) (2018). 1 (February 1, 2008): 34–50, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8676.2008.00035.x. The Echo is but an ‘ear’ in the home: a disembodied listening agent that never shows its deep connections to remote systems. Vincent Mosco has shown how the ethereal metaphor of ‘the cloud’ for offsite data management and processing is in complete contradiction with the physical realities of the extraction of minerals from the Earth’s crust and dispossession of human populations that sustain its existence. From a slow process of elemental development, these elements and materials go through an extraordinarily rapid period of excavation, smelting, mixing, and logistical transport – crossing thousands of kilometers in their transformation. (Previously, home videographers had to wear a purse-like peripheral that housed the cassette.) Thanks to Joana Moll and Meredith Whittaker for their inputs and inspirations on the first drafts of this text. The mining of these minerals takes place long before a final product is assembled, making it exceedingly difficult to trace the minerals' origin. 20 It brought the arcade experience home for $199 (about $800 adjusted for inflation), including a pair of iconic digital joysticks and games with computer-controlled opponents–a home console first. Traders are the middlemen who do more than buy and sell rare metals: they help to regulate information and are the hidden link that helps in navigating the network between metals plants and the components in our laptops.” 35, At Amazon distribution centers, vast collections of products are arrayed in a computational order across millions of shelves. Vincent Mosco, To the Cloud: Big Data in a Turbulent World (Boulder: Paradigm, 2014). David Abraham describes the mining of dysprosium and Terbium used in a variety of high-tech devices in Jianxi, China. This kind of invisible, hidden labor, outsourced or crowdsourced, hidden behind interfaces and camouflaged within algorithmic processes is now commonplace, particularly in the process of tagging and labeling thousands of hours of digital archives for the sake of feeding the neural networks. In recent years, shipping boats produce 3.1% of global yearly CO2 emissions, more than the entire country of Germany. What really made the iPhone so remarkable, however, was its software and mobile app store, introduced later. 1 (March 10, 2011): 1. Eventually, camcorders were displaced by flash memory-packing Flip Video cameras and, later, smartphones. For many, Nokia’s colorful candy bar-shaped 3210 defined the cell phone after it was released in 1999. 10 ... etc) because it may not last. In order to do so, Intel has its own multi-tiered supply chain of more than 19,000 suppliers in over 100 countries providing direct materials for their production processes, tools and machines for their factories, and logistics and packaging services. Where there is a single internet packet travelling to an Amazon Echo, here we can imagine a single cargo container. (Hitachi makes everything from aircraft engines to defense equipment, but perhaps nothing as personally stimulating.) To date over one hundred and ninety-three film-, video- and sound-based works by fifty-five artists from the collection can be viewed in their entirety in the Online Collection Catalogue. Those suppliers are themselves linked downstream to tens of thousands of component manufacturers that acquire materials from hundreds of refineries that buy ingredients from different smelters, which are supplied by unknown numbers of traders that deal directly with both legal and illegal mining operations. When massive data sets are used to train AI systems, the individual images and videos involved are commonly tagged and labeled. Philips, for example, has tens of thousands of different suppliers, each of which provides different components for their manufacturing processes. After a series of futile and expensive attempts, the project engineers turned to humans to work behind computers within a streamlined web-based system. The video begins, “Say hello to the all-new Echo” and explains that the Echo will connect to Alexa (the artificial intelligence agent) in order to “play music, call friends and family, control smart home devices, and more.” The device contains seven directional microphones, so the user can be heard at all times even when music is playing. Shoshana Zuboff, “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology 30, no. Andrew Hurley (New York: Penguin, 1999), 325. 34 The Makerbot Replicator was neither the first nor the best consumer-level 3-D printer. (Did the interaction result in a tracked response: a light turned on, a product purchased, a track played?). the miner as labor and ore as product. From Rodney King and citizen journalism to America’s Funniest Home Videos and unscripted television, the camcorder did as much to change the world from 1983 to 2006 as it did to record it. In the dynamic of dataset collection through platforms like Facebook, users are feeding and training the neural networks with behavioral data, voice, tagged pictures and videos or medical data. 36. It cemented Google’s Android platform as the iPhone’s biggest competition. Glass also showed the potential pitfalls of easily identifiable wearables, perhaps best proven by the coining of the term “Glassholes” for its early adopters. The aim was to obscure how the system worked: an elegant statue was all they could see. They are key elements in communication systems from fiber optic cables, signal amplification in mobile communication towers to satellites and GPS technology. Amazon reminds users that they cannot open up and repair their Echo, because this will void the warranty. He is leading SHARE Lab, a research and data investigation lab for exploring different technical and social aspects of algorithmic transparency, digital labor exploitation, invisible infrastructures, and technological black boxes. While vinyl records were still the most popular music format, the Walkman—originally the “Sound-About” in the United States—played much smaller cassettes and was small enough to fit in a purse or pocket. Standardized cargo containers allowed the explosion of modern shipping industry, which made it possible to model the planet as a massive, single factory. After soaking up the sights, head to One Café for casual fare, One Mix for small plates and cocktails or, the gem, One Dine for a full dining experience with … Thinking about extraction requires thinking about labor, resources, and data together. The Segway’s symbolic impact greatly exceeded its commercial success. 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